The text of Birth Of The Nations : Europe After Charles includes the Carolingian architecture, the period of Romanesque and couple of times Otto or we can say in short, this chapter is about Byzantine Empire and Endülüs. Endülüs (Andalusia) affected by Islam in Islamic Revolution and Abbasians times. But like I said, beginning should be the Carolingian architecture that I mentioned above.

The flow from Carolingian to Romanesque was in optimum. It was not in sharp moves or not in continuous way. So what we can obtain from here is that, Carolingian style is a cause for Romanesque style to emerge. In the period of Carolingian, building of religious and defense structures were posing importance. We can mention about the “central plan” theme that is a distinctive element of Carolingian architecture. Because before that, Carolingians were not literally nice because of political and social occasions. While in that period, again, basilicas used as one of the main elements of architectural style. In Otto, more fascinating cathedrals were builded like Gernrode which is one of the either the most archaic and most dramatic cathedral of all.

By those times, approximately like all architecture styles that is going on in planet Earth was related with religion, same as the Romanesque style. With the information above the religious buildings such as churches and cathedrals were studied in those times. Although the differentiation of the following cultures, this period also affected by some cultures such as the Byzantines, the Muslims.

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