First article that I want to investige is the “Thermal Scan of Egypt’s Pyramids Reveals Mysterious Hot Spots” (by Sarah Pruitt, November 11th, 2015)1. Article describes that, during the 4th dynasty of pharaohs, one of three pyramids in Egypt, Giza is one of the monuments in mankind history. That magnificent monument scanned with thermal cameras which detects the heat conditions of where they scan and the researchers found that in eastern wall of the Great Pyramid of Giza, may hint some passageways in it. I find that information is important because revealing hidden things in past may change the history. If they will find any chamber things in it, it will be cause an effect on my personal view on history like the perception of the Göbeklitepe. May be the findings that obtained from that discovery may change the history of the Egyptians. In addition to that, I definitely recommend this article for whom is in interest with the history of Egyptian dynasties. The second article which I will mention following is “Early Human-Like Species Discovered in South Africa” (by Barbara Maranzani, September 10th, 2015)2. Text tells about the story of the announcing of a new addition to man’s family tree, introducing the Homo naledi which is a strange, human-like species of primitive man. That discovery was the findings of 1,500 fossils. Couple of amateur hikers found approximately full body of an Homo naledi (naledi = star). The guy’s height was five-feet-long and was weight less than 100 pounds. This sizes refers a 1/3 of a modern time human. In my opinion, the importance of this article is day by day new kinds adding right into the family tree of man. Maybe tomorrow, a new specy will be discovered feets underground and all the information will be deleted and rewrite which is the beautiful aspect of history. That is why we all should be reading these kind of articles, especially this one because process in human history interests all. Third and the last article that I will add into this article is that, “Ancient Chinese Teeth Challenge Human Migration Timeline” (by Christopher Klein, October 16th, 2015)3. This article includes the information that discovery of new 47 teeth in a Chinese cave and it may be 20,000 years earlier from the ancient fossils of Homo sapiens which is in Africa. The shocking reality is this statement of one of the discoverers “They really look modern, but they are very old”. Like in our past assignment that was the trip of Yassıhöyük, it affects my perception as well as this. People lived in the place where I stand at that moment like 3000 years ago, so these teeth discovery felts same with that statement that I mentioned above. That was the case that interests me the way I look at historical events. Gives the man a crucial hype feeling while reading those informations. So these kind of news not changing the perception of mine, improving it. So I definitely recommend this article others at ease. So this was the review of mine about 3 news articles about the World History.
Following report is about the Urbanization period of Europe which they did a graze from Dark Age in 12th and 13th century. In 12th Century, with the period which basis on Christianism and Byzantium traditions, Rome has the partiarchic revolution had in there. With those, Franks, who were just a basic tribal country (not sure if we can mention about the country concept) not that far, a couple years ago, conserved themselves from these revolutions with religious reforms. Exact those times, there were a society rising through from all, who were declining the church. These people were mostly merchants so they were interested in trade commercial structures like market buildings, stores, shops and in addition to that, these structures were forming the shapes of the public areas of course.
Gothic architecture which is mentioned in text, were in a significant effect in old towns. A lot of parts were just a copy from Romans and Germans. What we can understand from that information is, Romans were influenced Europe, old towns so much with its legacy. These Roman influenced cities were a safe guardian of the plebians (lower class in hierarchy). With that, protection of people became an crucial concern in design so they had their cities in circular forms to become more suitable from all, with that, there is a opportunity of natural growing of city had been created at all.
Communication with the landscape is a must for architectural design and it requests utmost information about the landscape. Not only the physical qualities of it, but also the design approach of nature itself. Like in my individual project that is going on in a peninsula in Eymir Lake, learning the language of the landscape is one of my design rules as in my shelter. The example of the Maison Carreé and Carré d’Art; is my inspiration source. We were asked to plan routes for one, five and fifteen people on the peninsula. One of my routes passing near by a rock which belongs a family of three significant rocks on the peninsula and I need a shelter approximately near that rock. So with the information above, I inspired from the Carreé’s and decided a modern look of that rock as shelter on my route for the sake of communicating with the landscape. With that idea, I just think that this is a way of communicating with the route and understanding the route. Also that idea is in a harmony either with my design approach in general which is the balance between the visual richness and the physical contact on routes, and by the material choice which is wood. So with those above, I think my design approach of the shelter that I mentioned is in a harmony with what I learn from the History of Architecture I course.
The text of Birth Of The Nations : Europe After Charles includes the Carolingian architecture, the period of Romanesque and couple of times Otto or we can say in short, this chapter is about Byzantine Empire and Endülüs. Endülüs (Andalusia) affected by Islam in Islamic Revolution and Abbasians times. But like I said, beginning should be the Carolingian architecture that I mentioned above.
The flow from Carolingian to Romanesque was in optimum. It was not in sharp moves or not in continuous way. So what we can obtain from here is that, Carolingian style is a cause for Romanesque style to emerge. In the period of Carolingian, building of religious and defense structures were posing importance. We can mention about the “central plan” theme that is a distinctive element of Carolingian architecture. Because before that, Carolingians were not literally nice because of political and social occasions. While in that period, again, basilicas used as one of the main elements of architectural style. In Otto, more fascinating cathedrals were builded like Gernrode which is one of the either the most archaic and most dramatic cathedral of all.
By those times, approximately like all architecture styles that is going on in planet Earth was related with religion, same as the Romanesque style. With the information above the religious buildings such as churches and cathedrals were studied in those times. Although the differentiation of the following cultures, this period also affected by some cultures such as the Byzantines, the Muslims.
Rome was definitely the ‘capital of the world’ in ancient times.
Caput : Head
Mundi : World
Rome was the homeland of countless artists and also architects and has an impressive collection of paintings, mosaics, fountains and of course art of different times like, Bernini, Caravaggio, Borromini. As for architecture, Roman monuments of ancient times were characteristic. Roman architecture has a lot of significant architectural creations that are characteristic. Like arch forms of Roman’s and these kind of architectural elements were used in constancy manner all the time. The elements that are used in buildings such as openings, wet areas, decks were the forms that we can observe. Also it is actually pretty important that, which material they used in the buildings. The common material for construction were stone but the concrete were also used rarely in those times. For the understanding the soul of the Roman architecture, we need to check the characteristic Roman buildings which are located in Rome and Pompeii which were the two important culture centers of those times. Like in every civilization, Romans have their hierarchy also. There were the clientage system that is based on actually clients and society were divided by two. Poor was really poor, rich was really rich. The gap between the rich and poor were amazing. So, architecture is a reflection of society, culture and the perception like for whole time. If there is such a gap between those classes, it should of course have an impact on architecture. In that part, the Roman high-class people owned houses called Domus. In domus, there are meeting halls, public spaces called atriums, gardens back in houses called peristyles and the working offices called tricliniums. These things are basically the basis of Roman architecture.
I visited the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations. In the museum, there were many pieces that is belong to very old ages. There were sections divided the museum like, paleolithic age, neolithic age, bronze age, Hittites, Phrygians and the artifacts in Ankara in the bottom floor. All the pieces that are exhibiting in there were awesome. Especially the Ankara part interested me because the parts were showing the Hacılar, Gölbaşı and Haymana artifacts and I am living in Gölbaşı so the idea that ‘there were a civilization about 3 km far from my house like 5000 years ago’ making me curious about the rest. Definitely worth to visit.